Episode 46: Mark Sykes and Francois Georges-Picot

We Effed Up

On this episode, Theresa and Cody explore how the British and French created the several countries in the Middle East by literally drawing random lines on a map.

Podcast to recommend: The Civil War (http://civilwarpodcast.org/)


  • Barr, James. A Line in the Sand: Britain, France, and the Struggles That Shaped the Middle East. New York City, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2012.
  • Berdine, Michael. Redrawing the Middle East: Sir Mark Sykes, Imperialism, and the Sykes-Picot Agreement. London, UK: I. B. Touris, 2018.
  • Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. London, UK: Macmillan, 2009.
  • McMeekin, Sean. The Ottoman Endgame: War, Revolution, and the Making of the Modern Middle East, 1908-23. New York City, NY: Penguin, 2016.

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